Sauvignon Blanc Production with Lafazym Arom (2017)

This study examines the use of Lafazym Arom (Laffort) (pectinase and β-glucosidase) additions on the varietal character of Sauvignon blanc wines. Many volatile aroma compounds are glycosylated, resulting in very high solubility and low volatility. Thus, these compounds must be enzymatically cleaved to remove the glucose moiety in order for these aromatic compounds to be sensed. Lafazym Arom is an enzyme which may be able to impact the sensorial attributes of certain grape varieties, particularly terpenic varieties. Sauvignon blanc was harvested, destemmed, and cold soaked for 20 hours, after which grapes were pressed and settled with CinnFree for one day. Juice was racked into stainless steel barrels for fermentation and inoculated with Vin-2000. Different barrels received different rates of addition of Lafazym Arom after fermentation: 1) no Lafazym, 2) 2/ghL (low rate) Lafazym, and 3) 4g/hL (high rate) Lafazym. Barrels were then topped with sulfur dioxide. All other treatments between wines were equal. No differences in wine chemistry are apparent between treatments. Enzyme addition increased 3-mercaptohexanol, perhaps with diminishing returns at larger doses. Overall, wines produced with Lafazym Arom tended to have higher Overall Aromatic Intensity and Thiol Character. Tropical Fruit character also was generally increased with Lafazym Arom. Wines made with Lafazym Arom tended to be more preferred, although differences were present with regard to the rate of Lafazym addition. These results suggest that Lafazym Arom can have a large impact on the aromatic qualities of Sauvignon blanc.

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No Sulfur Winemaking in Chardonnay (2017)

This study examines the effect of fermenting wine with and without sulfur dioxide. Chardonnay grapes were harvested and pressed into 3 separate tanks. At pressing, one treatment received 3g/hL sulfur dioxide (control), and the other did not receive any sulfur dioxide, and the third did not receive any sulfur dioxide and received Stab Micro M and Tan Blanc at pressing and followed an Enartis no sulfur winemaking protocol. After settling, the juices were racked into barrel and inoculated with CY 3079. The Enartis wine received additions of Claril SP during settling. After completion of malolactic conversion, the control wine was stabilized with sulfur dioxide, and the Enartis treatment had Stab SLI, Tan SLI, and Stab Micro added at the end of malolactic conversion. Both barrels with the Enartis treatment fermented slower than the rest. No major chemistry differences were found between wines except for slightly lower lactic acid in the Enartis wine. The no sulfur wine had slightly higher levels of Lactic Acid Bacteria, slightly less O. oeni, and slightly less S. cerevisiae. The Enartis wine had slightly more S. cerevisiae, and slightly higher diacetyl. In general, judges were able to distinguish between the wine made with and without sulfur dioxide. This may have been due to a perceptible difference in diacetyl between these two wines, likely due to diacetyl binding by sulfur dioxide in the wine produced with sulfur dioxide. The no sulfur wine treatment may have had slight oxidation (but not in a negative respect), and the Enartis no sulfur wine may have had a slight bitterness (although this was not examined statistically). A perceived bitterness in the Enartis wine may be due to the use of sacrificial tannin. Preferences were not strong, but there seemed to be a preference for the wine made with sulfur dioxide, and then perhaps followed by the wine made without sulfur dioxide. However, many more studies are needed to further qualify how no sulfur winemaking impacts wine sensory qualities. Additionally, more studies need to be performed to determine how no sulfur wines age over time.

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Use of CelStab on Tartrate Stability in Vidal Blanc (2017)

This study compares the effects of CelStab (Laffort) on the tartrate and colloidal stability of Vidal Blanc vs traditional cold stabilization. Vidal Blanc grapes were whole cluster pressed and fermented normally. After fermentation, samples were taken for heat and cold stability in November, and later the wine was bentonite fined and then sterile filtered into two separate vessels. One vessel received traditional cold stabilization at 28°F, and the other vessel had CelStab added at 1mL/L to induce chemical tartrate stabilization. All other treatments between wines were equal. Both treatments increased cold stability, but traditional cold stabilization had a greater impact in this case. Other wine chemistry was not affected by the treatments. Wines were not found to be significantly different via triangle test. There were no strong preference or descriptive trends between wines.

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The Effect of Tan Citrus on Chardonnay (2016)

This study compares Chardonnay wine fermented either with or without the enological tannin Tan Citrus (Enartis) added before primary fermentation. When combined with yeast with β-glycosidic activity, this tannin may increase fruit and floral aromas in wine. The yeast used in this study was CY3079. No major chemical differences were found between wines. The wines were not significantly different. There was a very slight preference for the wine made with Tan Citrus. More work is needed on the enological additive to effectively evaluate its impact.

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The Effect of Tan Citrus on Petit Manseng (2016)

This study compares Petit Manseng wine fermented either with or without the enological tannin Tan Citrus (Enartis) added before primary fermentation. When combined with yeast with β-glycosidic activity, this tannin may increase fruit and floral aromas in wine. The yeast used in this study was 58W3, a glycosidic yeast. No major chemical differences were found between wines. Wines made with Tan Citrus had higher tannin content and slightly lowered grape reaction product, which may suggest that Tan Citrus helped protect the wine against oxidation. Triangle sensory testing revealed that the wines were significantly different (p<0.001). No major sensory trends could be seen with the descriptors used in this study, and judges were split on which wine they preferred.

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The Effect of Stabulation on Fermentation Kinetics and Sensory Quality (ARC) (2016)

This study examines the effect of different rosé must processing techniques on the chemical and sensory qualities of finished wine. Merlot grapes were either sent directly to press or cold soaked for two days prior to pressing. After cold soak and pressing, juice was either settled and inoculated or stabulated for approximately 5 days, after which it was inoculated and a Laffort thiolase enzyme was added. Merlot sent directly to press underwent stabulation. Not many chemical differences could be seen between stabulated juices with the control, except a higher initial turbidity. These results suggest that for this particular style of rose winemaking, judges preferred wine made from the two-day cold soak, regardless of stabulation. Although the stabulated and control wines were found to be significantly different, no major trends could be seen for the descriptors used in this study except for perhaps a slight increase in fruit intensity and thiol aromas. No major preference could be seen for the control wine and stabulated wine, suggesting that stabulation can act as a technique to process wine without much altering the flavor profile in a negative matter.

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Chardonnay Lees Management with Extralyse (ARC) (2016)

This study examined the impact of lees stirring and batonnage enzyme addition during Chardonnay aging on the chemical and sensory qualities of the wine. Chardonnay juice was fermented in barrels, and afterwards 3 different stirring regimes were imposed: unstirred, stirred, and stirred with Extralyse (Laffort). Stirring occurred once per week for 8 weeks. The finished wines showed decreasing levels of residual sugar with stirring and with enzyme addition. Some malolactic fermentation could be observed in the stirred wine with Extralyse as well. Wine tended to become more cold stable over time, but the unstirred wine showed the highest level of cold stability but also the highest level of bentonite addition necessary to become heat stable. These results suggest that stirring may enhance Sweetness, Depth of Flavor, Yeast Character, and Body, although many of these effects were weak. The effect of Extralyse in combination with stirring was not too different than from stirring itself. However, the stirring regime for this study was relatively short (8 weeks). In the future, more realistic stirring regimes should be implemented to see whether differences tend to increase over time, particularly with respect to Extralyse.

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Chardonnay Lees Management with Extralyse (ARC) (2016)

This study examined the impact of lees stirring and batonnage enzyme addition during Chardonnay aging on the chemical and sensory qualities of wine. Chardonnay juice was fermented partially in tank before being aeratively racked with lees inclusion to finish fermentation in barrels, and afterwards 2 different stirring regimes were imposed: unstirred and stirred with Extralyse (Laffort). Stirring occurred once per week for 8 weeks. No major chemical differences could be observed between treatments, and both wines underwent partial malolactic conversion. Wines tended to become more cold stable and heat stable over time, with stirring and Extralyse potentially making the wine slightly more heat stable than not stirring. Of 10 judges, 9 were able to correctly distinguish the wines from each other, showing that these wines were significantly different (p<0.001); however, this may have been because the stirred wine was cloudy. 8 out of 8 people tended to prefer the wine with Extralyse; however, the unstirred wine may have had some oxidized characteristics. Wine produced with Extralyse and Stirring had a strong tendency to be higher in Sweetness and Body, and tended to have slightly higher Yeast Character and Depth of Flavor. However, the stirring regime for this study was relatively short (8 weeks). In the future, more realistic stirring regimes should be implemented to see whether differences tend to increase over time.

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Chardonnay Lees Management with Extralyse (ARC) (2016)

This study examined the impact of lees stirring and batonnage enzyme addition during Chardonnay aging on the chemical and sensory qualities of the wine. It is a companion study to Blenheim’s Chardonnay Lees Management (2016), which compared the effects of not stirring Chardonnay to stirring Chardonnay. Chardonnay juice was fermented in barrels, and afterwards two different treatments were imposed: stirred, and stirred with Extralyse (Laffort). Stirring occurred once per week for 8 weeks. No major chemical differences could be observed between the finished wines. Wine tended to become more cold stable over time. Additionally, increased bentonite additions to become heat stable were necessary after aging. In general, people often could not distinguish between stirring and stirring with Extralyse. When people could distinguish, there appeared to be a slight preference for wine made with Extralyse. The descriptors used generally did not help elucidate which qualities in wine were affected by stirring. There may be a small tendency for Extralyse to enhance Fruit Intensity and Depth of Flavor, but these tendencies were weak. However, the stirring regime for this study was relatively short (8 weeks). In the future, more realistic stirring regimes should be implemented to see whether differences tend to increase over time.

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Tan Elegance in Chardonnay (2015)

This study compared the chemical and sensory attributes of Chardonnay with and without the addition of Tan Elegance (Enartis).  The wine with Tan Elegance had lower titratable acidity, but all other chemical attributes were the same.  There was a  significant sensory difference between wines, with a slight preference for the wine without Tan Elegance.

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Fermentation Tannins in Chardonnay (2015)

Chardonnay fermented with either Tan Citrus (Enartis) or FT Blanc (ScottLabs) were compared for chemical and sensory characteristics.  No significant differences were found for both chemical and sensory attributes, and there was no real preference between wines.  However, Tan Citrus should be put into a wine fermenting with a B-glycosidic yeast strain for full effect, and the yeast strain used in this study was not identified.

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Chardonnay Juice Fining with Oenolees (2014)

Chardonnay juice was treated with Oenolees (Laffort) partway during fermentation, and the finished wine was compared to Chardonnay from the same pick that had not had Oenolees addition. Although there was no real chemical difference between the wines, there was a significant sensory difference between wines.  No preference or descriptive data was taken.

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Glutathione Addition in Viognier – FreshArom (2014)

This study compares the chemical and sensory aspects of Viognier wines whose juice had been treated with FreshArom (Laffort), a glutathione product.  Glutathione is thought to help prevent oxidation in juice.  No chemical differences were observed in the wines except that titratable acidity was higher in the wine treated with FreshArom.  Significant sensory differences were observed between the wines.  However, preference and descriptive data were not collected, so the effect of FreshArom in this study is still undetermined.

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