The Impact of Micro-oxygenation in Tannat (2017)

This study examines the impact of micro-oxygenation in aging Tannat wine. Tannat wine was split into two identical tanks. The treatment tank was micro-oxygenated with a dosing stone through a Stavin Ox Box. Due to the small volume of wine, continuous micro-oxygenation was not possible, and instead a discontinuous regimen was put in place with a target oxygen rate of 5 mL Oxygen/L wine/month. This was achieved by dosing the wine with 0.61mL Oxygen/minute for approximately 10 hours every 3-5 days. Treatment was halted when malolactic conversion began. Chemistry results were not too different, except for sulfur dioxide binding (where more sulfur dioxide was binding in the control). Sulfides were not very different, and differences in Oenococcus are likely not due to the treatment. Color was not very different. The micro-ox wine had higher levels of anthocyanins, but slightly lower polymeric pigment and tannin. For the triangle test, of 27 people who answered, 5 people chose the correct wine (19%), suggesting that these wines were not significantly different. In fact, this suggests that judges consistently and significantly did not choose the correct wine and were biased to the replicates (p<0.05). In general, of people who answered correctly, 3 preferred the micro-ox wine, and 2 preferred the control wine. For the descriptive analysis, there were no strong trends for the descriptors used in this study. There may have been a slight tendency for the micro-ox wine to have higher Astringency, but this was very weak. These kinds of studies should be repeated in the future, over multiple varieties, utilizing both continuous and discontinuous micro-oxygenation schemes. Furthermore, more intensive micro-oxygenation regimens should be performed in future studies.

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Comparison of Juice Settling Techniques (Cold Settling vs Flotation) (2017)

This study examines the impact of different juice clarification techniques in Pinot Gris: cold settling vs flotation. Juice from the same lot of whole cluster-pressed grapes were split into two tanks, one for cold settling and one for flotation. The cold settled juice settled for one day, whereas the floated juice was clarified overnight. All other treatments between juices and wine were equal. The acidity dropped slightly for both treatments after clarification. The cold-settled wine had a slight lag before fermentation began compared to the float. There were no major wine chemistry differences between treatments. The cold-settled wine was slightly less cold stable and required slightly more bentonite to become heat stable. Overall, judges were not able to distinguish the wines from each other. There were no major preference trends for the wines. No strong sensory differences were present as well, except that cold settling may lower the perception of Body. These results suggest that flotation may be a beneficial technique not only to reduce turn-around time, enhance juice yield, and reduce chiller load; but that it may also serve as a mechanism for preserving aromatic intensity and fruit intensity similar to cold settling.

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Comparison of Juice Clarification Techniques (Cold Settling vs. Flotation) on Chemical and Sensory Aspects of Vidal Blanc (2016)

This study compares the efficacy of juice clarification with flotation to that of cold settling. The
cold-settled juice fermented slightly slower. No notable chemical differences were apparent between juice and wine, except that cold-settled juice produced wine with a higher degree of cold stability. The TA was higher for the float-clarified wine. Wine produced from flotation resulted in less losses to gross lees, and reduced the need for chiller load. It could potentially reduce turn-around time as well, but this was not characterized fully in this study. A significant difference (p<0.001) between wines was found in triangle testing. Although descriptive analysis showed no strong trends for the descriptors used in this study there was a slight trend for wines produced with flotation to have higher Fruit Intensity as well as Overall Aromatic Intensity. In general, there was not a noticeable preference for the floated wine over the cold settled wine. These results suggest that flotation may be a beneficial technique not only to reduce turn-around time, enhance juice yield, and reduce chiller load; but that it may also serve as a mechanism for preserving aromatic intensity and fruit intensity.

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