Sauvignon Blanc Production with Lafazym Arom (2017)

This study examines the use of Lafazym Arom (Laffort) (pectinase and β-glucosidase) additions on the varietal character of Sauvignon blanc wines. Many volatile aroma compounds are glycosylated, resulting in very high solubility and low volatility. Thus, these compounds must be enzymatically cleaved to remove the glucose moiety in order for these aromatic compounds to be sensed. Lafazym Arom is an enzyme which may be able to impact the sensorial attributes of certain grape varieties, particularly terpenic varieties. Sauvignon blanc was harvested, destemmed, and cold soaked for 20 hours, after which grapes were pressed and settled with CinnFree for one day. Juice was racked into stainless steel barrels for fermentation and inoculated with Vin-2000. Different barrels received different rates of addition of Lafazym Arom after fermentation: 1) no Lafazym, 2) 2/ghL (low rate) Lafazym, and 3) 4g/hL (high rate) Lafazym. Barrels were then topped with sulfur dioxide. All other treatments between wines were equal. No differences in wine chemistry are apparent between treatments. Enzyme addition increased 3-mercaptohexanol, perhaps with diminishing returns at larger doses. Overall, wines produced with Lafazym Arom tended to have higher Overall Aromatic Intensity and Thiol Character. Tropical Fruit character also was generally increased with Lafazym Arom. Wines made with Lafazym Arom tended to be more preferred, although differences were present with regard to the rate of Lafazym addition. These results suggest that Lafazym Arom can have a large impact on the aromatic qualities of Sauvignon blanc.

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The Impact of Yeast Fining on Wine Quality Prior to Bottling (Enartis, Laffort) (2017)

This study examines the impact of different yeast fining techniques on finished wine quality. A 2017 red wine blend (75% Cabernet Franc, 25% Petit Verdot) was blended into tank in early February. Then, on February 8 the wine was split into four analogous neutral barrels, and the barrels either received no treatment (control), a BM45 yeast addition at 1g/L, a Surli Velvet (Enartis) addition at 0.05g/L, or an Oenolees (Laffort) addition at 0.4g/L. The barrels were stirred on the date of addition and a week later. The wine was pulled for analysis and bottle samples on March 15. There were no differences in wine chemistry and color. For the descriptive analysis, there were no strong trends for the descriptors used in this study. There was a slight tendency for the BM45 treatment to have higher Fruit Intensity, Overall Aromatic Intensity, and Body and lower Herbaceous/Green character. Oenolees had a slight tendency for lower Fruit Intensity and Bitterness. Surli Velvet had a slight tendency towards higher Herbaceous/Green character and Astringency. Many of these differences were not very pronounced, however, and many judges commented that differences were slight. All wines were equally preferred, more or less. Some judges remarked that the BM45 treatment seemed to have a larger effect on the mouthfeel than the rest. More studies are needed in order to better quantify the impacts of these treatments on wine flavor and aroma quality.

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Use of CelStab on Tartrate Stability in Vidal Blanc (2017)

This study compares the effects of CelStab (Laffort) on the tartrate and colloidal stability of Vidal Blanc vs traditional cold stabilization. Vidal Blanc grapes were whole cluster pressed and fermented normally. After fermentation, samples were taken for heat and cold stability in November, and later the wine was bentonite fined and then sterile filtered into two separate vessels. One vessel received traditional cold stabilization at 28°F, and the other vessel had CelStab added at 1mL/L to induce chemical tartrate stabilization. All other treatments between wines were equal. Both treatments increased cold stability, but traditional cold stabilization had a greater impact in this case. Other wine chemistry was not affected by the treatments. Wines were not found to be significantly different via triangle test. There were no strong preference or descriptive trends between wines.

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The Effect of Adding Tannat Skins and Exogenous Tannin to Chambourcin Fermentations (2016)

This study examines the impact that different sources of fermentation tannins will have on the sensory and phenolic qualities of Chambourcin wine. Chambourcin picked at the same time from the same block were crushed and destemmed into four fermentation bins, each with 1.5 tons of grapes. One bin was a control with no exogenous tannin added; the second bind received oak chips and fermentation tannins (Color Max and FT Rouge); the third bin received 75 pounds of Tannat skins; and the fourth bin received oak chips, fermentation tannins, and Tannat skins. All other treatments between lots were the same. In general, adding oak and tannat skins lowered color and phenolic attributes, except that tannin was slightly increased. Adding these compounds seemed to increase catechin and epicatechin. Adding Tannat skins and oak chips together increased catechin and epicatechin and slightly increased color intensity. Descriptors were mixed, and not too many differences could be seen between wines with the descriptors used in this study. In general, judges tended to prefer the Control wine and the wine made with Tannat Skins, Oak Chips, and Tannin added. This study suggests that the effects of adding different sources of tannin are not additive but instead are complex and difficult to predict.

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The Effect of Tannin and Oak Addition on Merlot (2016)

This study examines the impact of adding either VR Supra (Laffort) or both VR Supra and untoasted oak chips on the sensory and chemical qualities of Merlot. Merlot was harvested on the same day from the same block and processed identically into three separate T Bins, one of which was a control, one of which received VR Supra, and one of which received both VR Supra and untoasted French oak chips. All other treatments were the same between groups.  No major differences could be seen in wine chemistry. Color was not impacted much, but the treatments lowered anthocyanins. Adding tannin and adding oak chips increased tannin. The differences between treatments, however, were not that great. Overall, conflicting results were found for the two tastings this project was poured at. At the Shenandoah tasting (May 3), most judges preferred the wine with both Oak Chips and VR Supra, whereas on May 17 that was the least preferred. Oak chips with VR Supra tended to increase Astringency and Bitterness, but this was a weak tendency. These results suggest that these wines could be tailored to meet the demands of different consumer groups. However, the number of judges in these studies were small, and in the future more work should be done on these wines. Additionally, this wine was unusually high in alcohol and extraction due to the vintage, and more of a difference with these treatments may be more observable in different vintages.

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The Effect of Zymaflore Alpha Yeast (Laffort) during Cold Soak on Cabernet Franc Wine (2016)

This study examines the impact of adding Zymaflore Alpha (T. delbrueckii) (Laffort) yeast prior to a cold soak on the chemical and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Franc wine. Cabernet Franc from the same block was harvested on the same day and processed into two separate T Bins. All additions were identical, except that one T Bin received Zymaflore Alpha yeast and the other received no yeast. Both bins then underwent a 6 day cold soak at 50°F. After cold soak, both bins were inoculated with FX 10 yeast. All other treatments were identical. Wine was pressed around 3 weeks after processing. The Zymaflore treatment lowered titratable acidity and slightly lowered ethanol, but otherwise no major chemistry differences were apparent between wines. The Zymaflore treatment had increased acetaldehyde and propanol, but most other higher alcohols and fusel oils were lowered by the treatment. The Zymaflore treatment also slightly lowered color intensity. Triangle testing showed that, of 7 people who answered, 4 people chose the correct wine (57%), suggesting that the wines were not significantly different. However, the wines were almost significantly different. 3 out of 4 judges who answered correctly preferred the Zymaflore treatment to the control, and the other judge had no preference. The wine with Zymaflore was described as being slightly smoother, less harsh, or more balanced in terms of acidity. No major trends were discovered for the descriptors used in this study. There was a slight tendency for the Zymaflore wine to have lower Astringency and Overall Aromatic Intensity. The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains merits further work.

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The Effect of Different Sources of Lees and Lees Products on Aging Cabernet Franc Wine (2016)

This study examines the impact of adding different sources of lees to aging Cabernet Franc wine. Cabernet Franc wine was split into 5 barrels with the following treatments: 1) no lees addition, 2) 2 pints of Chardonnay lees added, 3) 2 pints of Viognier Lees added, 4) Laffort Autolees added, and 5) AEB Batonnage Elevage added. The wines were stirred once every two weeks until taken for sampling (in February). Wine chemistry did not differ between treatments. The sulfide profile did not differ at the limit of detection of the laboratory analyses. All treatments slightly lowered color intensity and increased hue, except for the AEB Batonnage treatment, which increased color intensity and decreased hue. In the first tasting, the Control and the Laffort Autolees treatment strongly increased Fruit Intensity, but this was not replicated at the second tasting. There were weaker tendencies between tastings, however. Lees which originated from wine (Viognier and Chardonnay Lees) appeared to have a consistent impact on the aroma of the wines, whereas lees which originated from products had less impact on wine aroma. An exception would be the AEB Battonage Plus treatment, which appeared to increase Herbaceous/Green qualities. The AEB lees tended to have the largest impact on Astringency. No major preference trends could be seen. These results were very mixed, likely due in part to the complexity of the project. This project produced interesting results, and more work on the impact of lees management in red wines should be done before drawing hard conclusions about these different lees sources. Stylistic possibilities of adding aromatic white wine lees to red wine should also be considered in future studies.

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The Effect of Stabulation on Fermentation Kinetics and Sensory Quality (ARC) (2016)

This study examines the effect of different rosé must processing techniques on the chemical and sensory qualities of finished wine. Merlot grapes were either sent directly to press or cold soaked for two days prior to pressing. After cold soak and pressing, juice was either settled and inoculated or stabulated for approximately 5 days, after which it was inoculated and a Laffort thiolase enzyme was added. Merlot sent directly to press underwent stabulation. Not many chemical differences could be seen between stabulated juices with the control, except a higher initial turbidity. These results suggest that for this particular style of rose winemaking, judges preferred wine made from the two-day cold soak, regardless of stabulation. Although the stabulated and control wines were found to be significantly different, no major trends could be seen for the descriptors used in this study except for perhaps a slight increase in fruit intensity and thiol aromas. No major preference could be seen for the control wine and stabulated wine, suggesting that stabulation can act as a technique to process wine without much altering the flavor profile in a negative matter.

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Color and Tannin Extraction and Stabilization in Red Winemaking (ARC) (2016)

This study examines the impact of different tannin addition practices on the color and tannin profiles of Merlot wine. Merlot was harvested from the same block and split into three separate fermentation vessels. One vessel received no tannin or oak chip additions, a second vessel received VR Supra and Lafase HE Grand Cru at processing, and VR Color during fermentation (ARC-Laffort Protocol), and a third treatment received Lafase HE Grand Cru and mini chips bois frais oak chips at processing. All other treatments between wines were equal. Wine chemistry between treatments were the same, except that the control tended to have slightly lower TA. Both treatments increased color intensity and tannin, with the Laffort-ARC protocol having the greatest impact. The treatments slightly increased catechin and gallic acid. The treatments tended to slightly lower anthocyanins, but increased polymeric pigment. No strong trends could be seen for the descriptors used in this study. There was a slight tendency for the control to have higher Fruit Intensity and lower Astringency. The Oak Chips + Grand Cru had a slight tendency to increase Body, Bitterness, and Overall Aromatic Intensity. However, these were weak trends. In general, the ARC-Laffort Protocol Treatment was the least preferred. Several judges described these wines as having slightly oxidized characteristics, and as such these sensory results may not be very representative. 

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Chardonnay Lees Management with Extralyse (ARC) (2016)

This study examined the impact of lees stirring and batonnage enzyme addition during Chardonnay aging on the chemical and sensory qualities of the wine. Chardonnay juice was fermented in barrels, and afterwards 3 different stirring regimes were imposed: unstirred, stirred, and stirred with Extralyse (Laffort). Stirring occurred once per week for 8 weeks. The finished wines showed decreasing levels of residual sugar with stirring and with enzyme addition. Some malolactic fermentation could be observed in the stirred wine with Extralyse as well. Wine tended to become more cold stable over time, but the unstirred wine showed the highest level of cold stability but also the highest level of bentonite addition necessary to become heat stable. These results suggest that stirring may enhance Sweetness, Depth of Flavor, Yeast Character, and Body, although many of these effects were weak. The effect of Extralyse in combination with stirring was not too different than from stirring itself. However, the stirring regime for this study was relatively short (8 weeks). In the future, more realistic stirring regimes should be implemented to see whether differences tend to increase over time, particularly with respect to Extralyse.

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The Effect of Enzyme, Cap Management, and Tannin on Phenolics in Merlot (2016)

This study examined the impact of 5 winemaking techniques on the phenolic composition of Merlot. The treatments were as follows: 1) Control, 2) Stomping grapes during a delestage (otherwise identical to control), 3) Lafase Grand Cru (Laffort) at crush, 4) VR Supra (Laffort) at crush, and 5) Both Lafase Grand Cru and VR Supra at crush. All other treatments were the same between wines. All wines had a delestage operation performed at 2 Brix, where stomping occurred for the stomping treatment. There were no major chemical differences between wines. Stomping had very little effect on phenolic chemistry. VR Supra and Grand Cru alone increased color, but when combined color was lowered (corresponding to lower anthocyanins). No other impacts on phenolic qualities could be observed, except tannin was increased and gallic acid decreased in the wine treated with VR Supra. The sensory impact of the VR supra treatment cannot be adequately assessed due to it being an outlier. Overall, the treatments tended to slightly increase Fruit Intensity and Body relative to the Control. The stomped wine tended to be the most preferred wines for all but the May 3 Tasting. Grand Cru + VR Supra also tended to be regarded fairly highly. The Control wine tended to be the least preferred. These results were not very strong, however, and more studies on the impacts of these treatments on the chemical and sensory qualities of wine should be performed. Additionally, more work should be done to examine the impact of these treatments on wine during aging.

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Chardonnay Lees Management with Extralyse (ARC) (2016)

This study examined the impact of lees stirring and batonnage enzyme addition during Chardonnay aging on the chemical and sensory qualities of wine. Chardonnay juice was fermented partially in tank before being aeratively racked with lees inclusion to finish fermentation in barrels, and afterwards 2 different stirring regimes were imposed: unstirred and stirred with Extralyse (Laffort). Stirring occurred once per week for 8 weeks. No major chemical differences could be observed between treatments, and both wines underwent partial malolactic conversion. Wines tended to become more cold stable and heat stable over time, with stirring and Extralyse potentially making the wine slightly more heat stable than not stirring. Of 10 judges, 9 were able to correctly distinguish the wines from each other, showing that these wines were significantly different (p<0.001); however, this may have been because the stirred wine was cloudy. 8 out of 8 people tended to prefer the wine with Extralyse; however, the unstirred wine may have had some oxidized characteristics. Wine produced with Extralyse and Stirring had a strong tendency to be higher in Sweetness and Body, and tended to have slightly higher Yeast Character and Depth of Flavor. However, the stirring regime for this study was relatively short (8 weeks). In the future, more realistic stirring regimes should be implemented to see whether differences tend to increase over time.

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The Effect Tannin Addition on the Sensory Qualities of Chambourcin Port-Style Wine (2016)

This study examined the impact of adding increasing levels of Querplus (oak tannin from Laffort) to Chambourcin Port-style wine on its sensory characteristics. The treatments for this study were no addition, 50ppm addition, 100ppm addition, and 150ppm addition (5g/hL, 10g/hL, and 15g/hL, respectively). All other treatments between wines were kept the same. Because of sugar and ethanol differences between the control and treatment wines (due to mixing effects), the control wine was not tasted. Barrels were not identical between treatments, but 10-year-old barrels were used for each treatment. Adding Querplus did not affect wine chemistry or phenolics. Overall, higher amounts of Querplus were preferred by judges. 150ppm had a slight tendency to increase the perception of Sweetness, and 100ppm tended to increase the perception of Alcohol and Body. Astringency was not very affected by the treatments. None of these impacts were very pronounced, however. More work is needed on the interaction of tannin, ethanol, and sugar in Port-style wines.

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Chardonnay Lees Management with Extralyse (ARC) (2016)

This study examined the impact of lees stirring and batonnage enzyme addition during Chardonnay aging on the chemical and sensory qualities of the wine. It is a companion study to Blenheim’s Chardonnay Lees Management (2016), which compared the effects of not stirring Chardonnay to stirring Chardonnay. Chardonnay juice was fermented in barrels, and afterwards two different treatments were imposed: stirred, and stirred with Extralyse (Laffort). Stirring occurred once per week for 8 weeks. No major chemical differences could be observed between the finished wines. Wine tended to become more cold stable over time. Additionally, increased bentonite additions to become heat stable were necessary after aging. In general, people often could not distinguish between stirring and stirring with Extralyse. When people could distinguish, there appeared to be a slight preference for wine made with Extralyse. The descriptors used generally did not help elucidate which qualities in wine were affected by stirring. There may be a small tendency for Extralyse to enhance Fruit Intensity and Depth of Flavor, but these tendencies were weak. However, the stirring regime for this study was relatively short (8 weeks). In the future, more realistic stirring regimes should be implemented to see whether differences tend to increase over time.

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Chardonnay Juice Fining with Oenolees (2014)

Chardonnay juice was treated with Oenolees (Laffort) partway during fermentation, and the finished wine was compared to Chardonnay from the same pick that had not had Oenolees addition. Although there was no real chemical difference between the wines, there was a significant sensory difference between wines.  No preference or descriptive data was taken.

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Glutathione Addition in Viognier – FreshArom (2014)

This study compares the chemical and sensory aspects of Viognier wines whose juice had been treated with FreshArom (Laffort), a glutathione product.  Glutathione is thought to help prevent oxidation in juice.  No chemical differences were observed in the wines except that titratable acidity was higher in the wine treated with FreshArom.  Significant sensory differences were observed between the wines.  However, preference and descriptive data were not collected, so the effect of FreshArom in this study is still undetermined.

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Press Enzyme Comparison: Cinn-Free vs. Lafazym Press (2015)

The effect of press enzymes Cinn-Free (ScottLabs) and Lafazym Press (Laffort) on finished Sauvignon Blanc wine were compared.  There were no chemical differences between the wines except that the Lafazyme-treated juice had a slightly higher titratable acidity.  There were no significant sensory differences between the wines, but there seemed to be a slight preference for Lafazyme.  No yield comparisons were made.

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The Effect of Different Products on Merlot Color Stability (2014)

One Merlot wine was made using a mixture of ScottLabs Color Pro, Tannin VR Supra (Laffort), and French oak chips.  The other wine was made with a mixture of Zym Color Plus (Enartis), Tan Fermcolor (Enartis), and Tan Color (Enartis).  Both experimental wines were meant to mimic similar enzymatic and tannin additions.  There were no chemical differences between the wines, and sensory testing was not performed in this project.  No resources to measure color or phenolic content were available for this project.

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