Developing a protocol for rosé stabulation using Laffazyme THIOLS (Laffort) and Fermoplus Tropical (AEB) (2018)

Cardinal Point Winery, Tim Gorman

Based on results of previous studies of stabulation focusing on thiol production in roséand Sauvignon Blanc, Cardinal Point has decided to adopt stabulation in the production of its Cabernet Franc based rosé. To develop the protocol, several elements of a thiol-producing approach were tested individually and in concert including use of THIOLS (Laffort) enzyme and Fermoplus Tropical (AEB) nutrient. All treatments in the trial received stabulation, with addition of enzyme and nutrient both separately and together. Finished wine chemistry was the same for all treatments. In a ranking test for aromatic intensity, the wine treated with both enzyme and specialized nutrient ranked significantly higher than the other treatments, however there were no significant differences among the wines for descriptors of thiol intensity or green/herbal quality.

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Comparing protocols for thiol production in Sauvignon Blanc

Veritas Vineyard and Winery, Emily Pelton

Thiols have become a defining characteristic of aromatic Sauvignon Blanc wines. Enological companies have developed specialized products to increase thiol production during fermentation and protection during aging. In this study, the standard protocol used at Veritas for production of Sauvignon Blanc is compared to the protocol recommended by Scottlabs. General wine chemistry was the same for both treatments. Wines were distinguished as different in a triangle test, with the Veritas protocol scoring higher in thiol intensity. Concentration of thiols and select esters were higher in the Veritas protocol wine.

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The effect of Stimula Sauv Blanc (Scottlabs) fermentation nutrients on Thiol Production in Sauvignon Blanc (2018)

Stinson Vineyards, Rachel Stinson Vrooman

Thiols have become a defining characteristic of aromatic Sauvignon Blanc wines. Enological companies have developed specialized nutrients to increase thiol production during fermentation. In this study, fermentation using Stimula Sauv Blanc, a yeast nutrient specialized for thiol production is  compared to fermentation using Fermaid O, a non-specialized yeast nutrient. Resulting wines had very similar general chemistry and thiol content. Triangle difference testing concluded the wines were different, however scores for thiol intensity were not significantly different between wines. Some fruity and floral esters were higher in the wine produced using Stimula Sauv Blanc.

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Sauvignon Blanc Production with Lafazym Arom (2017)

This study examines the use of Lafazym Arom (Laffort) (pectinase and β-glucosidase) additions on the varietal character of Sauvignon blanc wines. Many volatile aroma compounds are glycosylated, resulting in very high solubility and low volatility. Thus, these compounds must be enzymatically cleaved to remove the glucose moiety in order for these aromatic compounds to be sensed. Lafazym Arom is an enzyme which may be able to impact the sensorial attributes of certain grape varieties, particularly terpenic varieties. Sauvignon blanc was harvested, destemmed, and cold soaked for 20 hours, after which grapes were pressed and settled with CinnFree for one day. Juice was racked into stainless steel barrels for fermentation and inoculated with Vin-2000. Different barrels received different rates of addition of Lafazym Arom after fermentation: 1) no Lafazym, 2) 2/ghL (low rate) Lafazym, and 3) 4g/hL (high rate) Lafazym. Barrels were then topped with sulfur dioxide. All other treatments between wines were equal. No differences in wine chemistry are apparent between treatments. Enzyme addition increased 3-mercaptohexanol, perhaps with diminishing returns at larger doses. Overall, wines produced with Lafazym Arom tended to have higher Overall Aromatic Intensity and Thiol Character. Tropical Fruit character also was generally increased with Lafazym Arom. Wines made with Lafazym Arom tended to be more preferred, although differences were present with regard to the rate of Lafazym addition. These results suggest that Lafazym Arom can have a large impact on the aromatic qualities of Sauvignon blanc.

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Use of CelStab on Tartrate Stability in Vidal Blanc (2017)

This study compares the effects of CelStab (Laffort) on the tartrate and colloidal stability of Vidal Blanc vs traditional cold stabilization. Vidal Blanc grapes were whole cluster pressed and fermented normally. After fermentation, samples were taken for heat and cold stability in November, and later the wine was bentonite fined and then sterile filtered into two separate vessels. One vessel received traditional cold stabilization at 28°F, and the other vessel had CelStab added at 1mL/L to induce chemical tartrate stabilization. All other treatments between wines were equal. Both treatments increased cold stability, but traditional cold stabilization had a greater impact in this case. Other wine chemistry was not affected by the treatments. Wines were not found to be significantly different via triangle test. There were no strong preference or descriptive trends between wines.

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The Effect of Tan Citrus on Chardonnay (2016)

This study compares Chardonnay wine fermented either with or without the enological tannin Tan Citrus (Enartis) added before primary fermentation. When combined with yeast with β-glycosidic activity, this tannin may increase fruit and floral aromas in wine. The yeast used in this study was CY3079. No major chemical differences were found between wines. The wines were not significantly different. There was a very slight preference for the wine made with Tan Citrus. More work is needed on the enological additive to effectively evaluate its impact.

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The Effect of Tan Citrus on Petit Manseng (2016)

This study compares Petit Manseng wine fermented either with or without the enological tannin Tan Citrus (Enartis) added before primary fermentation. When combined with yeast with β-glycosidic activity, this tannin may increase fruit and floral aromas in wine. The yeast used in this study was 58W3, a glycosidic yeast. No major chemical differences were found between wines. Wines made with Tan Citrus had higher tannin content and slightly lowered grape reaction product, which may suggest that Tan Citrus helped protect the wine against oxidation. Triangle sensory testing revealed that the wines were significantly different (p<0.001). No major sensory trends could be seen with the descriptors used in this study, and judges were split on which wine they preferred.

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Tan Elegance in Chardonnay (2015)

This study compared the chemical and sensory attributes of Chardonnay with and without the addition of Tan Elegance (Enartis).  The wine with Tan Elegance had lower titratable acidity, but all other chemical attributes were the same.  There was a  significant sensory difference between wines, with a slight preference for the wine without Tan Elegance.

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Fermentation Tannins in Chardonnay (2015)

Chardonnay fermented with either Tan Citrus (Enartis) or FT Blanc (ScottLabs) were compared for chemical and sensory characteristics.  No significant differences were found for both chemical and sensory attributes, and there was no real preference between wines.  However, Tan Citrus should be put into a wine fermenting with a B-glycosidic yeast strain for full effect, and the yeast strain used in this study was not identified.

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Chardonnay Juice Fining with Oenolees (2014)

Chardonnay juice was treated with Oenolees (Laffort) partway during fermentation, and the finished wine was compared to Chardonnay from the same pick that had not had Oenolees addition. Although there was no real chemical difference between the wines, there was a significant sensory difference between wines.  No preference or descriptive data was taken.

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Glutathione Addition in Viognier – FreshArom (2014)

This study compares the chemical and sensory aspects of Viognier wines whose juice had been treated with FreshArom (Laffort), a glutathione product.  Glutathione is thought to help prevent oxidation in juice.  No chemical differences were observed in the wines except that titratable acidity was higher in the wine treated with FreshArom.  Significant sensory differences were observed between the wines.  However, preference and descriptive data were not collected, so the effect of FreshArom in this study is still undetermined.

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